The Board of Regents of Washington State University met pursuant to call, in Open Meeting at 9:02 a.m. on Friday, February 17, 1995, in the Regents’ Room at the Lewis Alumni Centre, Pullman, Washington.
Present: Richard A. Davis, President; Regents: Phyllis J. Campbell, R. M. “Mac” Crow, John W. Ellis, Carmen Otero, and Louis H. Pepper; President Samuel H. Smith, Provost Thomas F. George, Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie A. Giffen, University Counsel Sally P. Savage, Senior Assistant Attorney General Richard L. Hutchinson, Alumni Association President Tom Thompson, Faculty Senate Chair Douglas Baker, Staff Senate President Robert Gibson, GPSA President Oliver Bangera, and ASWSU President James Froembling.
Also present were: Vice Provost for Academic Affairs Geoffrey Gamble, Vice Provost for Student Affairs K. J. “Gus” Kravas, Vice Provost for Human Relations and Resources Ernestine Madison, Vice Provost for Research and Dean of the Graduate School Robert V. Smith, Executive Director of Budget and Planning Gregory P. Royer, Assistant Vice President for Business Affairs Ernest Renfro, Director of Facilities Planning David Smith, Associate Vice President for University Advancement Connie Kravas, News and Information Assistant Director Al Ruddy, and Assistant Attorney General Jennifer Geller.
1. Welcoming Remarks and Introductions. Regent Richard Davis welcomed everyone to the meeting and called the meeting to order. President Smith also provided welcoming remarks and introduced the following: Professor of Sociology Irv Tallman, who is the new Faculty Athletics Representative, and the new Chair of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Professor Gary Meadows.
2. Minutes. It was moved and seconded that the Board of Regents approve the minutes of November 18, 1994. Carried.
3. Reports from University Groups. Faculty Senate Chair Doug Baker reported on budget and legislative issues. He commented they are optimistic about the possibility of salary increases, but they feel the chances may be slim. Professor Baker noted there still is not enough understanding of the crisis in higher education, in general. He provided information on a forum co-sponsored by the Faculty Senate, GPSA and ASWSU to be held next week in Spokane which will include Senator Rinehart, Senator Prince and WSU Spokane Dean Bill Gray, who will provide information about the crisis in higher education to increase awareness.
Regent Davis provided comments about some current legislation circulating in Olympia to exclude salary increases for higher education and said he hoped that they are aware of this fact and are taking steps to work against the bills. Regent Davis and
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President Smith commended Professor Baker for his efforts on behalf of the faculty and the University.
GPSA President Oliver Bangera reported that they will move forward with the study center as it was recently provided funding. He spoke of insurance progress for WSU graduate students and stated that after working with Ernie Renfro, GPSA has put together the best insurance package in the nation. Mr. Bangera also reported on the following: the appointment of a counselor in the GPSA office to assist students with resolving their problems; subsidized basketball tickets provided by Rick Dickson for graduate students; the graduate student research exposition, which is underway; and a graduate student/married undergraduate survey to gather information about important topics on campus.
President Smith commented that the insurance package is a great package which meets all standards and fiscal responsibility guidelines, and the graduate students should be pleased with the package.
Staff Senate President Robert Gibson reported on a parking survey being distributed to students and employees on campus to assess current issues in this area. The Staff Senate Parking Committee worked with Parking Services who assisted with funding to complete the survey. He said in two weeks the letters will be mailed and by four months, they should have compiled enough data to understand the atmosphere of parking at WSU.
ASWSU President Jim Froembling stated that ASWSU is focusing on current events in Olympia and preparing for the legislative session. He reported that on February 1, 1995, students at the four-year institutions in Washington held rallies to get the media’s attention to educate the public about the crisis in higher education. He said they were very successful and received good results. Mr. Froembling stated Senator Rinehart has put together a new plan which is heading in the right direction and gives support to the student cause. Mr. Froembling also reported ASWSU election campaigns have begun and elections will be held on March 15.
Regent Davis observed that ASWSU has done a good job telling the University’s story, and asked Mr. Froembling to continue to work hard.
Alumni Association President Tom Thompson reported that they are preparing for the Alumni Association spring conference to begin in two weeks. He said the committees will be working toward completing projects they have worked on over the past two years. He also reported that the Alumni Association hosted a very successful reception at the Alamo Bowl with over 2,000 participants. He stated business has been
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the same as usual, and they are continuing to use the alumni facilities for many different activities on campus.
President Smith offered a comment on the significant amount of compliment letters that were received about the quality of the function and the people of WSU at the Alamo Bowl.
4. Establish a Bachelor of Arts in Comparative American Cultures (CAC). Provost Thomas George introduced Department Chair Paul Wong who provided background on the degree change. Dr. Wong commented that this is a consolidation of two different areas into one degree of CAC, but at the same time it does not require the need of any additional resources. If students still wish to study one area they may do so, but the degree will come from the CAC department. In addition, the students can also have a comparative track in which they could study all areas in CAC, as well to receive the degree.
Regent Otero asked how this new degree would work for the students who are already in the program, and Dr. Wong responded that there is no inconsistency in the requirements, and the students will have no problem integrating into the new program.
It was moved and seconded that the Board of Regents approve, effective Spring Semester, 1995, the recommendation to establish a Bachelor of Arts in Comparative American Cultures and eliminate the Bachelor of Arts in Black Studies and the Bachelor of Arts in Chicano Studies. Carried.
5. Adoption of New and Revised Administrative Rules of Academic Integrity; ICNE Parking; Education Records; Student Conduct; Student Organizations; and On-Campus Advertising Policies. Provost George provided background information on the new rules and stated that as a state agency, Washington State University has administrative rules in place which regulate certain activities of the University Community. University personnel reviewed existing rules and found that many were either out of date or did not address important issues. Rules requiring revision included those rules regulating the following: ICNE parking; access to education records; student conduct; student organizations; and advertising.
In addition, Washington State University formulated a new set of rules governing academic integrity standards and procedures. The WSU Board of Regents previously adopted the academic integrity standards and procedures on an emergency basis. Adoption of these rules on a permanent basis will establish standards of academic integrity and provide a process to respond to acts of academic dishonesty.
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Regent Davis asked if Professor Baker or Mr. Froembling if they had any comments or had the opportunity to be involved in the process. President Froembling responded that the students were involved and that it was a very open process. Professor Baker stated that the faculty were also happy with the outcome.
Regent Crow commented that he was pleased to see more flexibility built into the final draft, as he felt the first proposal was too direct and did not allow for administrative discrepancy.
It was moved and seconded that the Board of Regents adopt the new and revised Administrative Rules of Academic Integrity; ICNE Parking; Education Records; Student Conduct; Student Organizations; and On-Campus Advertising Policies. Carried.
6. WSU Vancouver Campus Construction Update. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen showed a short video of the WSU Vancouver campus construction, and President Smith provided commentary on the scenes shown.
7. Housing Plan Update. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen provided a presentation on the WSU Housing plan. She discussed the planning principles of on-and-off campus housing requirements. WSU currently houses 6,000 students on campus which is estimated to double by the next century. There is also expected to be an increase in graduate and married students. The figures on housing projections will be reviewed each spring to communicate with the community with regards to future needs, this will also be to address WSU’s future needs and to look at the plan to stretch it out longer in case of enrollment changes. This will be dependent upon enrollment projections. However, if WSU does not receive the funding to enroll as many students as projected, it does not want to have surplus vacant housing.
Ms. Giffen also reported on current residence hall capacity and how it is planned to convert current halls into housing for more students, in addition to building new apartments. Ms. Giffen showed where new sites are located and where additional sites have been proposed. The following future potential sites were selected because of location to dining and proximity to campus: Washington square; South Fairway site; Beasley parking; Kruegal McAllister Hall; Regents Hall; Hilltop Stables; the Orchards; and the poultry research site. A consultant has been hired to look over the campus who will provide guidance on what type of housing to use, location and projected costs.
8. Financial Report for 1994. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that the total operating revenue for 1994 was $390,107,367 and that state
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appropriations accounted for 30 percent of that or $148,700,726. She also reported that the endowment was at approximately $70 million as of January 30, 1995.
9. Contracts under Previous Delegation of Authority (under $500,000). Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that on the authority delegated to the President of the University or his designee at the meeting of January 24, 1986, she had approved entering into the following contracts:
R.R.A.O.CO. Inc., Spokane, for the remodel of Johnson Hall Labs for a total project cost of $458,627 including sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Improvement, Departmental and Indirect Cost Recovery funds.
Crimson Enterprises, Spokane, for White Hall elevator and power doors for a total project cost of $408,500, including alternate 1 and sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Renewal funds.
R.A.CO., Spokane, for the Steffen Center Greenhouse for a total project cost of $354,349, including sales tax, to be paid from the Minor Capital Improvement funds.
Marjan Construction, Spokane, for the Beasley Coliseum Catwalk Extension for a total project cost of $259,528, including alternates 1 and 2 and sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Renewal funds.
Associated Construction, Inc., Spokane, for the renovation of the CUB’s Butch’s Den for a total project cost of $153,208, including sales tax, to be paid from Student Facilities Fees.
Hamre Construction Inc., Spokane, for the Murrow Hall East remodel of KWSU offices and studios for a total project cost of $146,953, including sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Improvement funds.
Environmental Growth Chamber, Chagrin Fall, Ohio, for the Puyallup Growth Chamber renovation for a total project cost of $37,123, including sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Renewal funds.
Palouse Country Electric, Moscow, Idaho for the Johnson Hall electrical upgrade for a total project cost of $29,699, including alternate 1 and sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Improvement funds.
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Colvico, Inc., Spokane, for Daggy Hall Wadliegh Theatre lighting dimmer control for a total project cost of $28,488, including sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Improvement funds.
Walkenhauer and Associates, Yakima, for asbestos abatement at the ICNE Yakima site for a total project cost of $4,856, including sales tax, to be paid from Minor Capital Renewal funds.
10. Completion of Contracts over $2,500. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that on the authority delegated to her at the meeting of June 24, 1994, she had approved satisfactory completion of the following contracts:
Patriot Fire Protection, for Life Safety Improvements in Gannon, Goldsworthy and Streit Halls, in the final amount of $1,139.642.
Grinnell Fire Protection Services, for Physical Science fire protection, in the final amount of $369,272.
Hidden River Sprinklers, Inc., for various landscape and irrigation projects, in the final amount of $205,524.
Tectum (TKTM) Corporation, for Eastlick Plaza repair, for a final amount of $188,672.
Hamre Construction, Inc., for renovation of tennis courts 1-6, for a final amount of $169,703.
Hamre Construction, Inc., for McCroskey Hall site improvement, for a final amount of $93,211.
R.A.CO. Construction, for Clark Hall remodel of Rooms 314 and 316, for a final amount of $72,990.
Johnson Mechanical Corporation, for refrigeration systems replacement at IAREC, for a final amount of $69,499.
Vern W. Johnson and Sons, Inc., for renovation of B-5 Syn unit in Fulmer Hall building 0003 for a final amount of $60,255.
Moza Electric Corporation, for electrical distribution system improvements in Puyallup, for a final amount of $33,676.
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11. Annual Report of Minor Capital Improvements and Maintenance Contracts and Appointment of Architects and Engineers under Delegation of Authority. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that authority was delegated to the President of the University or his designee at the meeting of January 24, 1986, to select and approve engineers and architects for projects in which estimated total project costs are less than $500,000; to approve and adopt plans and specifications for construction, remodeling and maintenance work; and to advertise for and receive bids for such projects. In addition, the delegation permits the President or his designee to enter into contracts with contractors or other appropriate firms for execution of the work on such projects. As per this delegation Vice President Giffen provided this report to the Regents which they had also seen as part of their agenda packets prior to the meeting.
12. Housing and Dining System Rates for 1995-96. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported on the Housing and Dining Rate Setting Committee decision regarding 1995-96 rate setting. Ms. Giffen explained that there will be a 5.4 percent increase because WSU’s rates were lower than most schools and were not competitive.
Regent Campbell asked why our dining rates were higher than the University of Washington’s, and Ms. Giffen explained that our rates are lower because the University of Washington prices for food are ala carte instead of per meal prices. Regent Davis then questioned whether the dining system receives any feedback on quality, and Ms. Giffen responded that the dining system is assessed at least annually and usually more often. Mr. Froembling commented that each dining hall has its own committee that meets regularly to discuss quality issues.
A copy of the Housing and Dining Rate proposal, 1995-96, is presented as Exhibit A.
13. 1995 Consultant Selection for the Olympic Weight Room Expansion. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that the new weight room facility, to be located on the Pullman campus at a site to be selected, will consist of approximately 5,000 gross square feet to accommodate weight and aerobic training equipment and activity. The total project budget is $1,240,000, with funding coming from Student and Activity Facilities Fees.
Vice President Giffen explained that consultant selection should be undertaken at this time so that planning may proceed with the objective of completing design by March 1997 and completing construction by July 1998. The total consultant fee will not exceed $125,000 and will be funded from the Student and Activities Facilities Fees.
It was moved and seconded that WSU Board of Regents delegate authority to the President or his designee, the Vice President for Business Affairs, to hire a
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consultant firm to provide consulting services associated with the Olympic Weight Room Expansion. Carried.
14. Greenhouse Replacements – Puyallup, WWREC. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen presented schematic documents for the greenhouse replacement in Puyallup and introduced the Director of Facilities Development, Dave Smith. Mr. Smith reviewed the specifications for the greenhouse replacements. The green houses will accommodate programs in multiple disciplines including: Crops and Soils, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology and Natural Resource Sciences. The head house provides general support space for the greenhouses including restroom, lockers, storage, examination room, work room, cooler and plant growth room.
It was moved and seconded that WSU Board of Regents approve schematic design documents, grant permission to proceed with design development and delegate authority to the President or his designee, the Vice President for Business Affairs, to approve construction documents, advertise for bids and award a construction contract for the Greenhouse Replacements, Puyallup, WWREC project, if a budget can be established with the funds available. Carried.
15. Engineering Teaching/Research Laboratory. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that the schematic drawings for the Engineering Teaching/Research Laboratory were approved at the March 4, 1994, Board of Regents meeting and permission was granted to proceed with design development and construction documents at that time.
The architectural firm of Callison Partnership is completing the final drawings, specifications and cost estimate for the Engineering Teaching/Research Laboratory, Phase I (demolition of Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Building). The documents will be reviewed and approved by the Project Planning Committee and by the Departments of Facilities Development and Physical Plant.
It was moved and seconded that WSU Board of Regents delegate authority to the President or his designee, the Vice President for Business Affairs, for approval of construction documents, to advertise for bids and to award construction contracts for the Engineering Teaching/Research Laboratory project, if a budget can be established within the funds available. Carried.
16. Fulmer Hall/Annex Renovation Reconfiguration of Project. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen reported that a recent cost estimate check performed prior to the planned bid date of December 6, 1994, indicated substantially increased environmental costs and a budget shortage. Facilities Development, the Project
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Planning Committee and the consultant have worked during the last six weeks to develop a new building construction plan.
The completion of Fulmer Hall will require the remaining portion of the current $13,468,400 allocation to be supplemented with an additional funding request for the 1997-99 biennium presently estimated at $5,982,100, for a total project cost of $19,450,500.
It was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents approve a Change of Project Scope/Phasing and to proceed with the renovation of Fulmer Annex. Carried
17. Animal Disease Biotechnology Facility, Phase I. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen said that based upon the authority delegated to the President of the University or his designee, the Vice President for Business Affairs at the meeting of May 6, 1994, bids were solicited for the Animal Disease Biotechnology Facility Project, Phase I. Bids were opened January 19, 1995, for the construction work. Levernier Construction, Inc., Spokane, was the responsive low bidder. The previous delegation by the Board of Regents was for authorization to enter into a contract if a budget could be developed within the available sum of $10,134,890. Based on the sum of the base bid and selected alternates, the Phase I budget now totals $11,409,459. The difference of $1,274,569, will be funded from the available funds previously reserved for Phase II. The combined total cost for Phase I and II will remain unchanged as a result of this action.
It was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents approve the award of a construction contract to Levernier Construction, Inc., Spokane for the Animal Disease Biotechnology Facility, Phase I. Carried.
18. Summer Session 1995 Tuition and Summer Session 1995 Services and Activities Fees. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen proposed that the tuition and fee structure for Summer Session 1995, be increased and to follow the established procedure of linking summer fees to the previous year’s part-time resident fees, omitting any nonresident fees for the summer term.
The proposed undergraduate fee ($145/SCH) is the same as part-time undergraduate fee for the academic year 1994-95. The proposed graduate fee ($187/SCH) is larger than the undergraduate fee by half the difference between part-time fees for undergraduate and graduate students during the academic year 1994-95
($145+ [$288 – $145/2] = $187).
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In connection with the above recommended tuition increase, the Summer 1995 Services and Activities Fees will be raised from $10.93/SCH to $12.51/SCH. An increase of 14.44 percent represents the average percentage increase of undergraduate/graduate tuition. This follows the principle adopted by the Summer Session Advisory Committee that Services and Activities Fees increase proportionately to summer tuition increases.
It was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents approve the recommendation to increase summer tuition (resident and non-resident) from $127/SCH undergraduate and $163/SCH graduate to $145/SCH undergraduate and $187/SCH graduate and to approve a recommendation to increase Summer Services and Activities Fees from $10.93/SCH to $12.51/SCH. Carried.
Regent Davis asked why WSU does not charge out of state tuition for summer school. President Smith replied that the WSU Summer session keeps the tuition at an equal rate to any student to ensure higher numbers for enrollment and for simplicity in registering. President Smith also explained that WSU Summer session, by operating in this manner, has been able to cover all its costs.
19. Delegation of Authority. Vice President for Business Affairs Sallie Giffen provided background information relating to the request for a new Delegation of Authority for general business and financial affairs. The Board of Regents last reviewed and approved a resolution to delegate authority to the President or his designee at the meeting of January 24, 1986. Since that time, the CPI and other economic factors have caused the dollar limitations incorporated in the resolution to become restrictive for daily operations. At the same time, some small issues must wait for a meeting of the Board of Regents before action can be taken by the President or his designee.
It was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents approve effective February 17, 1995, the resolution to delegate authority to the President, and in-turn to the President’s designees, to act for the Board in matters pertaining to the organization, management, and execution of the University’s general business and financial affairs. Carried.
A copy of the resolution is presented as Exhibit B.
20. Report from University Affairs. Vice President for University Advancement Connie Kravas reported that the University has been fortunate to receive two important gifts, one from Washington Water Power (WWP)/Pentzer and another from the Tode Foundation. President Smith provided comments on the significant gift from WWP/Pentzer.
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President Smith noted that WWP/Pentzer has always been a large supporter of the University. This year they contributed a $230,000 gift, with $115,000 going toward the Engineering Management program in Spokane, and $115,000 toward the Native American Scholarship fund at the Intercollegiate Center for Nursing Education. President Smith thanked Regent Davis for being a WSU advocate.
Regent Davis commented on the importance of this gift and how it is meant to help the Native American Community who are the least represented in nursing programs. He also stated that the Engineering gift will provide necessary support to that program and that the engineering field is quite prevalent in the Spokane area. Regent Davis commented that the company is proud to support both of those programs.
Dr. Kravas restated her gratitude toward WWP/Pentzer and to Regent Davis for his advocacy. Dr. Kravas also announced a gift donated by the Tode Foundation of $1,000,000 to go toward the Institute for Biochemistry. She introduced Director of the Institute for Biochemistry Norm Lewis.
Professor Lewis explained the importance of the gift and its purpose. He and Professor Rodney Croteau met with the Trustees of the Tode Foundation and explained to them the significance of WSU’s Biochemistry program. They noted specifically their research and work with the drug, Taxol, which has been proven to prevent cancer. This gift will also support the training of foreign university students and expose them to modern research and expand the outreach of the advances in medicine.
21. Election of Officers. Regent Davis proposed that Phyllis Campbell be elected to serve as President of the WSU Board of Regents for the year beginning May 1, 1995; that John Ellis be elected to serve as Vice President of the WSU Board of Regents for the year beginning May 1, 1995, with the understanding that he shall act a President pro tempore in the absence of the President, with the power to preside at the meetings and to sign all instruments required to be executed by the WSU Board of Regents; and that Sallie A. Giffen be appointed to serve as Treasurer of the WSU Board of Regents for the year beginning May 1, 1995.
It was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents elect the above officers for the year May 1995 to May 1996. Carried.
At 10:40 a.m., the Regents met in Executive Session to discuss a personnel matter until 10:43 a.m. At 10:43 a.m. the Regents adjourned for a short break and reconvened in open session at 10:53 a.m. Present: President Davis; Regents: Campbell, Crow, Ellis, Otero, and Pepper; President Smith, Dr. George, Ms. Giffen,
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Ms. Savage, Mr. Hutchinson, Mr. Thompson, Dr. Baker, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Bangera, and Mr. Froembling.
22. Honorary Doctoral Degree. Upon approval from President Samuel H. Smith, the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, the Faculty Senate, and the Honorary Doctoral Degree Committee, it was moved and seconded that the WSU Board of Regents approve the award of an Honorary Doctor of Science Degree to Norman Ernest Borlaug, Distinguished Professor of International Agriculture. Carried.
Regent Pepper made an observation that awarding Honorary Doctoral degrees brings distinction to the University and that they should be awarded more often. Regent Davis expressed the same opinion and asked that the faculty be notified of the Boards’ thoughts in this matter.
23. Presentation on Assessment at WSU. Provost Thomas George introduced the Associate Director of Social and Economic Sciences Research Center, John Tarnai, and Vice Provost for Academic Affairs Geoffrey Gamble. Provost George stated that the goal of assessment is to provide strong educational programs. He said assessment offers a means of institutional improvement, while at the same time addressing the State’s and public’s needs for accountability and that the focus is on effectiveness of academic programs and on improving the quality of undergraduate education.
Provost George’s presentation included overheads showing the various forms of assessment such as: placement exams, surveys, reviews, workshops and committees and described how each one helps WSU gain information to make improvements. Regent Davis asked if there is consistency between institutions on placement tests they give to entering students. Dr. Tarnai responded that the same test is given to all state institutions and that the information goes back to the high schools on how to better prepare students for college. Regent Davis also wanted to know the general outcome of the writing placement test, and Dr. Gamble responded that students are placed in the appropriate classes depending on their test results and that most students prepare for taking the exams to ensure good placement.
Regent Davis emphasized he would like to see the Board review two to three assessment areas and discuss them at future meetings. Provost George pointed out that another valuable aspect of assessment is accreditation reviews. There were comments on how important it is that faculty are reviewed not only by the students, but also by their peers. Dr. Baker pointed out that these reviews are a tool not only for curriculum changes but also for merit increases.
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The Regents questioned Provost George about the effect of reviews on graduate assistants and associate professors. He responded that it is a great benefit, not only to help them improve, but to find out who is really qualified to teach. Regent Davis added that he had not been aware of the depth of assessment and feels most legislators are also not aware of the assessment activities taking place. He would like more information on outcome, results, use of the information, how WSU incorporates all of the data into the strategic planning for the University, and how it can be utilized to prepare for the next century. Regent Davis then requested information regarding this issue from the alumni, students, and faculty, so the Executive Committee can meet with Provost George, Dr. Gamble and President Smith on the best way to accomplish this goal.
Regent Davis emphasized that there is some good substantive material on assessment, and that the Regents should be made more knowledgeable. He accentuated the importance for the University to focus on the positive things we do in this time of crisis in higher education.
At 12:03 p.m. the meeting adjourned. After the meeting, the Regents had lunch with a presentation by Professors Greg Hooks and Ernie Stromsdorfer and graduate student, Jin Du which focused on their research concerning the role of higher education in the state of Washington. After the luncheon the Regents went on a tour of the WSU Museum of Art conducted by Patricia Watkinson.